Inilah Fatwa Lengkap MUI Terkait Ibadah Saat Wabah Corona

MUIJATIM-Komisi Fatwa Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI) melakukan pembahasan seputar mekanisme penyelenggaraan ibadah, terkait wabah Covid-19 yang terus meluas. MUI merasa berkewajiban melakukan perlindungan terutama tentang peribadahan.

“MUI kemudian memiliki tanggung jawab keagamaan untuk mengoptimalkan perlindungan kepada masyarakat dengan cara mencegah perluasan potensi penyebaran Covid-19 termasuk juga mekanisme penyelenggaraan ibadahnya,” ujar Sekretaris Komisi Fatwa MUI, Asrorun Niam Sholeh pada konferensi pers di gedung MUI, Jakarta, Senin (16/03/2020).

Dalam pembahasan itu disepakati beberapa poin, yang terfokus pada konsentrasi perkumpulan orang, seperti ibadah shalat.

“Pada pembahasan ini disepakati fatwa tentang penyelenggaraan ibadah dalam situasi terjadi wabah Covid-19 khususnya terkait dengan kegiatan yang terkonsentrasi perkumpulan orang,” katanya.

“Dan ini sebagai wujud kontribusi keagamaan MUI, mencegah peredaran dan perluasan wabah corona, semua demi kepentingan perlindungan masyarakat,” tambahnya.

MUI menetapkan Fatwa Nomor 14 Tahun 2020 tentang penyelenggaraan ibadah situasi dalam terjadinya wabah Covid 19.

Pada intinya ada 9 poin, yaitu:

Pertama. Setiap orang wajib melakukan ikhtiar menjaga kesehatan dan menjauhi setiap hal yang diyakini dapat menyebabkannya terpapar penyakit, karena hal itu merupakan bagian dari menjaga tujuan pokok beragama (al-Dharuriyat al-Khams).

Kedua. Orang yang telah terpapar virus corona, wajib menjaga dan mengisolasi diri agar tidak terjadi penularan kepada orang lain. Baginya shalat Jumat dapat diganti dengan shalat zuhur di tempat kediaman, karena shalat Jumat merupakan ibadah wajib yang melibatkan banyak orang sehingga berpeluang terjadinya penularan virus secara massal.

Baginya haram melakukan aktifitas ibadah sunnah yang membuka peluang terjadinya penularan, seperti jamaah shalat lima waktu/rawatib, shalat Tarawih dan Ied di masjid atau tempat umum lainnya, serta menghadiri pengajian umum dan tabligh akbar.

Ketiga. Orang yang sehat dan yang belum diketahui atau diyakini tidak terpapar COVID-19, harus memperhatikan hal-hal sebagai berikut:

  1. Dalam hal ia berada di suatu kawasan yang potensi penularannya tinggi atau sangat tinggi berdasarkan ketetapan pihak yang berwenang, maka ia boleh meninggalkan shalat Jumat dan menggantikannya dengan shalat zuhur di tempat kediaman, serta meninggalkan jamaah shalat lima waktu/rawatib, Tarawih, dan Ied di masjid atau tempat umum lainnya.
  2. Dalam hal ia berada di suatu kawasan yang potensi penularannya rendah berdasarkan ketetapan pihak yang berwenang, maka ia tetap wajib menjalankan kewajiban ibadah sebagaimana biasa dan wajib menjaga diri agar tidak terpapar virus corona, seperti tidak kontak fisik langsung (bersalaman, berpelukan, cium tangan), membawa sajadah sendiri, dan sering membasuh tangan dengan sabun.

Keempat. Dalam kondisi penyebaran Covid-19 tidak terkendali di suatu kawasan yang mengancam jiwa, umat Islam tidak boleh menyelenggarakan shalat jumat di kawasan tersebut, sampai keadaan menjadi normal kembali dan wajib menggantikannya dengan shalat zuhur di tempat masing-masing.

Demikian juga tidak boleh menyelenggarakan aktifitas ibadah yang melibatkan orang banyak dan diyakini dapat menjadi media penyebaran Covid-19, seperti jamaah shalat lima waktu/rawatib, shalat Tarawih dan Ied di masjid atau tempat umum lainnya, serta menghadiri pengajian umum dan majelis taklim.

Kelima. Dalam kondisi penyebaran Covid-19 terkendali, umat Islam wajib menyelenggarakan shalat Jumat.

Keenam. Pemerintah menjadikan fatwa ini sebagai pedoman dalam upaya penanggulangan Covid-19 terkait dengan masalah keagamaan dan umat Islam wajib mentaatinya.

Ketujuh. Pengurusan jenazah (tajhiz janazah) terpapar Covid-19, terutama dalam memandikan dan mengkafani harus dilakukan sesuai protokol medis dan dilakukan oleh pihak yang berwenang, dengan tetap memperhatikan ketentuan syariat. Sedangkan untuk menshalatkan dan menguburkannya dilakukan sebagaimana biasa dengan tetap menjaga agar tidak terpapar Covid-19.

Kedelapan. Umat Islam agar semakin mendekatkan diri kepada Allah dengan memperbanyak ibadah, taubat, istighfar, dzikir, membaca Qunut Nazilah di setiap shalat fardhu, memperbanyak shalawat, memperbanyak sedekah, dan senantiasa berdoa kepada Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala, agar diberikan perlindungan dan keselamatan dari musibah dan marabahaya (doa daf’u al-bala’), khususnya dari wabah Covid-19.

Kesembilan. Tindakan yang menimbulkan kepanikan dan/atau menyebabkan kerugian publik, seperti memborong dan menimbun bahan kebutuhan pokok dan menimbun masker hukumnya haram.

MUI berharap dengan fatwa ini nantinya masyarakat bisa menjadikan ini sebagai pedoman dan menyebarluaskan kepada yang memerlukan.

“Agar setiap Muslim dan pihak-pihak yang memerlukan dapat mengetahuinya, semua pihak dihimbau untuk menyebarluaskan fatwa ini,” tegasnya.

“Fatwa ini mulai berlaku pada tanggal ditetapkan, tanggal 16 Maret 2020. Dengan ketentuan jika di kemudian hari ternyata dibutuhkan perbaikan, akan diperbaiki dan disempurnakan sebagaimana mestinya,” tutupnya.

Pada fatwa itu, MUI juga menyampaikan sejumlah Rekomendasi. Yaitu:

  • Pemerintah wajib melakukan pembatasan super ketat terhadap keluar-masuknya orang dan barang ke dan dari Indonesia kecuali petugas medis dan import barang kebutuhan pokok serta keperluan emergency.
  • Umat Islam wajib mendukung dan mentaati kebijakan pemerintah yang melakukan isolasi dan pengobatan terhadap orang yang terpapar COVID-19, agar penyebaran virus tersebut dapat dicegah.
  • Masyarakat hendaknya proporsional dalam menyikapi penyebaran COVID-19 dan orang yang terpapar COVID-19 sesuai kaidah kesehatan. Oleh karena itu masyarakat diharapkan menerima kembali orang yang dinyatakan negatif dan/atau dinyatakan sembuh.

Fatwa ini ditetapkan di Jakarta pada 16 Maret 2020 dan ditandatangani oleh Ketua Komisi Fatwa MUI Prof HASANUDDIN AF dan Sekretaris Asrorun Ni’am Sholeh.*

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